Suggest reasons why birth rates are low during Stage 3 of the demographic transition model. <4 mark>

 

At stage 3 of the DTM birth rates are likely to be low due to great access to birth control and better access to education about family planning reducing unwanted pregnancies. There is a likely to be a preference for smaller families due to the expensive nature of bringing up children. As infant mortality is low, not as many children are required to ensure survival of some. Women may be delaying childbirth to follow a career. In some places (e.g. China) government policies may be restricting birth rates. 

 

Outline the human factors that have affected the distribution of population in the UK (refer to specific named places in your answer) <6 mark>

 

The South East of the Uk and London in particular has a very high population density. Excellent communications inculding a number of major international airports (e.g. Heathrow) and a major rail hub (Kings Cross) as well as major motor ways (M25) has helped attract business and commerce and London has a fast growing economy with a large range of jobs. The fact that London is the capital city has also given high status for many businesses to locate here. Its history and heritage with major tourist attractions has meant that there are many jobs in the tertiary sector in particular in tourism. In areas such as the Highlands of Scotland, where most jobs are in primary industries and there is an overall lack of employment there are much fewer people. The isolation of this area, with poor communications and lack of T, phone and Internet reception also accounts for the low population density.

 

Explain the incentives and disincentives used by a country trying to decrease its birth rate <6 mark>

 

After the rapid population growth in 1950s China, in the late 1970s a one child policy was introduced due to concerns over this rapid growth and the government realized that strict population control was required. In order to encourage people to stick to the policy a number of incentives were used, including the issuing of a ‘one child’ certificate for those sticking to the policy, entitling them to benefits e.g. priority housing, free medical care, free education etc. Free contraception and sterilization were available and marriageable age was increased to try and encourage delayed child birth. The government also put in place a number of disincentives as punishments for those who did not stick to the policy. The government also put in place a number of disincentives as punishments for those who did not stick to the policy. Those with more than once child lose privileges and are heavily fined. There are also examples of forced abortions and in some cases forced sterilization ‘Granny policy’ monitored people and kept track of births, reporting back to the authorities when the one-child ruling was broken. 

 

Explan the relationship between the physical geography of China and its population distribution <6 mark> 

 

China’s uneven population distribution can be clearly linked to its physical geography. The highest population densities (between 25 – 1000 people/km2) are in Eastern China where low relief makes it easier for settlement in terms of building houses and developing industry. The fertile floodplains of major rivers such as the Yangtze which drain through Eastern China provide opportunities for intensive agriculture and therefore support high numbers of people. In the SE, major cities such as Shanghai (population over 20 million) have developed as major trading ports due to its coastal location. In contrast the steep relief (over 5,000m) of the Sacred Mountains to the West of China has made it difficult for people to settle or build and communications are poor. With low rainfall totals (<500mm) and the presence of a number of deserts (e.g. Gobi) in the West (where temperature extremes often make settlement impossible) there is a very low population density of less than 10 people per km2. The lack of fertile soils and large areas of dry grassland make agriculture difficult and not able to support many people. 


 

Explain the relationship between the physical geography of China and its population distribution <6 mark> 

 

China’s uneven population distribution can be clearly linked to its physical geography. The highest population densities (between 25 – 1000 people/km2) are in Eastern China where low relief makes it easier for settlement in terms of building houses and developing industry. The fertile floodplains of major rivers such as the Yangtze which drain through Eastern China provide opportunities for intensive agriculture and therefore support high numbers of people. In the SE, major cities such as Shanghai (population over 20 million) have developed as major trading ports due to its coastal location. In contrast the steep relief (over 5,000m) of the Sacred Mountains to the West of China has made it difficult for people to settle or build and communications are poor. With low rainfall totals (<500mm) and the presence of a number of deserts (e.g. Gobi) in the West (where temperature extremes often make settlement impossible) there is a very low population density of less than 10 people per km2. The lack of fertile soils and large areas of dry grassland make agriculture difficult and not able to support many people.

 

Choose a country, which is trying to increase its birth rate. Explain the methods used by this country to increase its birth rate <6 marks>

 

Singapore is a good example of a country with a pro-natalist trying to increase birth rates. In 1987 they introduced a “3 or more policy” this is because they were concerned that if birth rate continued to fall there would not be enough workers to support the economy. A number of incentives were therefore used to encourage families to have children. A child saving scheme was provided for 2nd-4th child, government matching money that was saved. A $3,000 cash gift was given 3 month’s maternity leave and for couples under 12, $95 was given for a maid.

 

Explain how physical factors have influence the population distribution of China. <4 mark>

China’s population is unevenly spread and this can be partly be explained by its physical geography. The highest density areas, which hare in the east are in those areas with the most fertile soils around the fertile floodplains of major rivers such as the Yangtze which are vey good for agriculture. The East of China is also the main area of lowland, which is easier for human settlement. The sparsely populated area of Western China can be explained by the presence of mountains making settlement and communications difficult and a number of deserts including the Gobi desert where there is extreme temperature.

 

Using examples, explain the costs and benefits of an ageing population <6 marks>

The UK is one example of a country with an ageing population. Within the UK there are areas such as Torbay (East Devon), which have a particularly ageing population. There for example, being a popular retirement town, almost 50 of the population are over the age of 50. There are a number of costs associated with an ageing population which leas to a high dependency on those that are economically active. There is also a strain on resources for pensions, often resulting in an increase in the taxes paid by the working population. The demand and strain on health care and social services, may well result in a transfer of funding from young to old (with schools facing a reduction in funding). However, there are also a number of benefits of an ageing population. Older people have valuable knowledge and wisdom to share. DIY stores such as B&Q have a large number of workers over the age of 55 who can provide advice to customers. People who are retired have more leisure time and more disposable income and the strength of the ‘grey pound’ helps to support many industries, including tourism. Many retired people often also provide support for the community, giving up time for charity work or looking after grandchildren whilst parents work.